MAWLAVI - THE OTHER SECT WHOSE FOUNDER WAS A TURKISH SCHOLAR-RUMI
The Mawlavi sect, noted for all over the world as one of the biggest sufis order, was established by Rumi’s son, Sultan Valad, but the spirutal founder was Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi, one of the great mystic Turkish scholar lived in 13 century AD in Konya. Rumi emigrated from Khorasan to Anatolia with his family under the leadership of his father Bahaddin Valad while he was a young boy because of the pressure and jealousy of Khorasan orders. The holy family was settled down in Larende district around Konya first by the invitation of Seljuk emperor Alaeddin Kaykubat and a small madrasah was given to them to preach a sermon to the public. When Bahaddin Valad passed away, Rumi moved to Konya from Larende and began preaching sermons to the inhabitants of Konya as well as training some dervishes. His madrasah became so famous in as hort time and everybody all over the world came and attended to the lodge of Konya as lovers of Rumi. Rumi was offered to set up a sect with 3000 gold coins for expenses before he died but he refused this offer saying “ we don’t let by building a house under the sky and our tomb is in the hearts of wise “. Rumi began dictating his wise words to be recorded by Husamaddin Chalabi in a big book later called as “ Masnavi” which is the second most reading book after Koran in islamic world for centuries. His son Sultan Valad wanted to set up a sect depending on Rumi’s teaching principles and his wise words and Rumi’s grandson named Ulu Arif Chalabi systematised the rules and rituals later as we know Mavlavi sect principals today with the Sema ceremony. Then it was the turning point of Mavlavi sect which was ruled by the Chalabis coming from Rumi descandants as the main sheikh of Mawlavi order and Konya became the headquarter. Ulu Arif Chalabi visited some cities in Anatolia by making the interviews with both local lovers of Rumi and local authorities to open the branch offices of Mawlavi sect so Rumi’s grandson Ulu Arif Chalabi is considered as the founder. The branch offices of Mawlavi sect was opened day by day and the numbers of Mavlavi lodges were increased alot in a short time by spreading from Anatolia to Balcan countries in large geographical areas. When Istanbul was conquered, the first Mavlawi lodge in Galata to train the inhabitants of Itsanbul then Yenikapı, Bahariye, Uskudar and Kasımpasha lodges were added to Galata for actual requirements so Istanbul became the second most important Mawlavi city after Konya in literature, in art and in sufism. The numbers of total Mawlavi lodges reached up to 175 from Anatolia to North Africa including the Middle east at the end of 16 th century AD. Mawlavi sect lodges, from ordinary people to the high-ranking adminators in all commoners, has been affective throughout the long history past as the centers of art & intellectual and fine art faculties as well as music conservatories. The outstanding artists, the best composers, the talented calligraphers and the well-known poets have been trained in Mawlawi lodges and for example about 220 poets out of 310 altogether in council poets have been Mawlavi lovers or dedes. Mawlavi chalabis have always supported the local authotities and making the great contibution to unification of the state so they had alot of advantages for incomes and outcomes for ruling their foundations. Although some sect lodges became the centers of drunken or tramps, Mawlavi lodges were being avoided from these people by taking some strict measurements and vigilant rulers. Somebody who wanted to join Mawlavi sect used to apply to the “ Aşçı dede-the Chef Dede “ and he was invited to sit on a lamb pelt in a large kitchen for three days first. While he was sitting there, he was being watched by Chef dede and experienced lodge attendants. At the end of the third day he was asked to leave the lodge or to continue depending on dede’s decision. The candidate person was also free to leave or to continue as well. If he was accepted to become Mawlavi, he had to pass over 18 different examinations which could last 1001 days-more than two and half –years. He had to clean the toilets, sell the vegetables & fruits in public markets, sweep the floors, wash dishes up for the whole lodge members, paint the boots and etc in order to abash his pride during this hard examination called “ Çile-Ordeal “ in Mawlavi terminology. While he was being examined, he was also given fine arts training depending on his ability either to play a musical instrument such as Nay-Flute or Kudum-small drum “ or calligraphy, marbling , miniature or illumination as well as educated “ Sema ceremony “ as to become the whirling derwish. After spending in Mawlavi lodge more than two and a half years, he was promoted from “ Can-beloved boy “ to “ Dede-grandsire “ and he was given a cabin called " hücre " and he was registered as one of the workers & administrators of the sect then he was appointed some other places to train some more candidates. Sema is a religious ritual of the Sufi dervishes which has been made for centuries identified with Whirling Dervishes. Mawlawi sect has been able to enter the hearts of people all over the world for more than seven hundred years with Sema ritual as Rumi described being with Allah. Turning round or rotation is a human-specific movement that comes from Allah, after Rumi, which has become a symbol in Mawlawi sect. Ulu Arif Chalabi, Rumi’s grandson and Mawlawi Lodge manager, has set all the rules of the Mevlevi sect and Sema Ceremony as to become a cult. The rotational movement which is connected to the integrated these regulations and rules with music has become more effective and more splendid way of temptation of the human spirit. Therefore Sema ritual has been a mandatory ceremony to be done. Sema ceremony was inspired by the verses from holy Koran saying “ Wherever you turn, you see the light of Allah” The Sema ceremony symbolizes the degrees of the road meeting with Allah and shows certain maturity in Mawlawi sect. Sema ceremony is performed with great seriousnesswhich has been identified down to the smallest details of the procedures. Sema ceremony tells the the formation of the universe, the human being’s resurrection, the movement to the almighty creator Allah whom the human love and serve Him in the performance of the maturity step bey step turning himself and round the whole courtyard symbolically. The whole sema ceremony has four main parts and each part lasts about half an hour called as Selam. Sema ritual ceremony has a lot of rules with symbolizing human being, the universe, the creation, the life & death, resurrection and so on. The dresses of whirling derwishes, the colors, the lines in the hall and all items of Sema are reflections of human and his worship. Mawlavi headgears on Ottoman gravestones are called “ Sikke and are “classified into two main categories ; the one called “ destarsız dal dikke- Sıkke without stripe was on the tombstones of lovers and “destarlı dal sikke-Sıkke with stripes on the tombstones of dedes”. Mawlavi gravestones can be seen in Hamuşan-Mawlavi cemeteries or graveyards of the lodges which means slient people leading the cities of Istanbul, Konya and Manisa.