Murat II, who was the sixth sultan of the Ottoman dynasty, is the last ruler who built a big complex in Bursa that is known as Muradiye district today. The Muradiye Complex -Muradiye Külliyesi- is a group of buildings consisting of the Muradiye Mosque , a medrese, a bath , an imaret (soup kitchen), a fountain and 13 of türbes (mausoleum). There are twelve square, hexagonal and octogonal türbes in. They maintain their orijinal constructions. In the Muradiye complex , there are 13 türbes in a same garden. These are II. Murad, Alaaddin , Sehzade Ahmet , Sehzade Mustafa , Sehzade Mahmud, Cem sultan T, Concubines’ , Hatuniye (Hüma Hatun) , Gülsah hatun , Mükrime hatun, Gülruh Sultan , Ebe (Gülbahar ) , Sirin hatun (Ayınsâh) shrines. All of them have different sarcohagus in .
THE MURADIYE MOSQUE The Muradiye mosque is on a typical reverse T-plan which characterizes the most important constructions in the complex.this mosque has the same name of the location and that place is very dominant in there. It is in the center of the complex.It is very attractive with its ceramic and brick ornamentations. The medrese which is built next to the mosque has a backyard in it.the medrese was planned in a rectangular shape except for the classroom terrace.the hammam consists of a cooling room, a heating room and two parts of close cribs. The hostel for pilgrims is planned in a latitudinally rectangular way. There are three parts of this imaret.the constructions could not maintain their authentic way.
TURBES-SHRINES The türbes which are very important particular in the complex were built in a different times between the first part of the 15th century and the 16th century.Very different planning types are appeared in the türbes. There are 4 types of planning types which are cubic trunked , square, hexagonal and octogonal shapes. The türbes in generally maintains their architectural constructions but we can not say the same thing for its manual working.
THE MAUSOLEUM OF SULTAN MURAT II Murat II, who was the last sultan who reigned in Bursa, is the father of great Fatih known as conqueror. As you know, Fatih, Mehmet II , conquered İstanbul as the former capital of Byzantines in 1453. Murat II had been the sultan of Ottomans for about thirty years and he left his throne twice to his son Prince Mehmet voluntarily. Murat II wanted his son to rule the Ottoman state although he was alive. The enemy of Ottomans wanted to use this situation when Sultan Murat left his throne for the first time in 1444 but Mehmet II invited his father to come back the throne. Murat II followed his son’s advice and he won the victory of Varna battlefield under the leadership of Hungarian in 1444. When he passed away in 1451 after 30 years reign, Mehmet II was reday to rule the big Ottoman state. The shrine of Murat II is the largest shrines of them all and it located just opposite of the entrance. According to written instricption above the gate, it was built by his son Mehmet II in 1451 after his death. Murat II made his will to be buried next to his another son Alaeddin who died in 1443 and he did not want to cover his tomb with a dome so there is no roof over his tomb. Mausoleum has a square plan . Four columns carry a big dome and also it has a vaulted gallery around. Sultan Murat’s grave is a simple burial ground as an ordinary citizen. There is another building on the east side of the mausoleum which was converted as a small graveyard In this section the coffins of Prince Alaeddin, Prince Ahmet, Prince Orhan and Princess Hatun are located. A written inscription with three lines is above the gate explaining the date of deaths. The mausoleum was restored and repaired several times in the past and the last one was in 2015.
THE SHRINE OF PRINCE MUSTAFA Mustafa was the crown prince of Ottoman dynasty but his father Suleiman the magnificent killed him in the request of Roxalene . The whole empire kept for days of mourning for this unfortunate prince. The corpse was sent to Bursa and Suleiman’s son Selim II built a shrine in 1555 for his step-brother as he became the sultan. The mausoleum has an octagonal plan covered with a dome sitting above an octagonal drum. The walls were built as a stone-cut in three rows of bricks. The interior part was decorated with green, red and navy blue Nicea tiles containing with tulip and carnation patterns which make the area as a garden. The shrine has another graves ; the son of Sultan Suleiman Prince Orhan, Prince Mustafa’s mother Mahi Devran as the former wife of Suleiman the magnificent and unknown child grave except Prince Mustafa
THE SHRINE OF PRINCE MAHMUT It was built by Bulbul Hatun who was the mother of Prince Mahmut in 1506 . The shrine has an octagonal plan with a dome covering the roof. The interior part is decorated with nice tiles in turquoise and blue colors. In addition to this, areas outside of them and the dome is decorated with multi-colored engravings. The graves belong to prince Mahmut, prince Musa, prince Orhan , prince Emir and Bulbul Hatun.
THE SHRINE OF PRINCE AHMET It was the first major shrine in the garden built and belongs to the prince Ahmed, the son of Sultan II. Beyazıd. It is entered through a small portico carried by four marble columns in the north of the shrine. The surface of the octagonal tomb is still covered with a dome carried by octagonal drums. The inner walls of the tomb are covered with engravings by striking octagonal turquoise tiles. The shrine has the graves of prince Ahmet, II. Bayezit’s granson prince Mehmet, II. Bayezit’s another son prince Şehinşah, sultan’s wife Bulbul Hatun and the daughter of prince Ahmet, princess Safa
THE SHRINE OF PRINCESS GULŞAH HATUN The shrine was built in 15 th century for Gulşah Hatun who was the wife of Mehmet II and she was the mother of prince Mustafa. Mausoleum has a square plan and entrance has a small antechamber with an an octagonal ring carried by a dome. Simple pen works decorate inside and Gulşah Hatun’s son, Prince Ali is buried.
THE SHRINE OF PRINCE CEM SULTAN Cem Sultan is one of well-known and unlucky princes of Ottoman dynasty and he was killed by knights of Rhodes while he was captive person. Cem Sultan and Bayezid II were two sons of Mehmet II, conqueror of Istanbul, and they had a fight to take over the crown but Cem sultan was beated bu his brother so he was taken by Knihts of Rhodes as a refuge. His corpse was given to Ottomans and it was buried in his tomb later. Tomb is a hexagonal-shaped plan covering with a dome above which is carried by the hexagon hoop. It was decorated with turquoise tiles. The dome and the walls have rich engravings and calligraphs from holy book Koran. The flowers on the altar, medallions, cypress trees and the beginning of Fatiha and the names of prophet Mohammad ( be peace upon him ) can be seen in interior part of the shrine as the beautiful work of art in 15th century.
THE SHRINE OF FAVOURITE MUKRIME HATUN The shrine is located next to the Muradiye shrines inside the park. Mukrime Hatun was the daughter of Dulkadiroglu Emirate’s ruler and she was married with sultan Mehmet II as the first wife. The shrine was built according to a square shaped plan and the dome has an octagonal ring decorated with pen works. The coffins in the grave yard belong to Mukrime Hatun, son of Sultan Bayezit II prince Korkut and Fatma sultan, the daughter of prince Alemşah.
THE SHRINE OF PRINCESS HUMA HATUN One of the princess of Ottoman dynasty during the reign of Sultan Murat II and it was known as Ak Hatun turbesi and it was completed in 1449. The mausoleum has a small entrance after a hexagonal wall with two windows. The mausoleum was made of brick and stone without a dome over the graves. There are only two coffins inside, one of them belongs to Huma Hatun, who was the mother of Sultan Chalabi Mehmet I and the other is unknown.
THE SHRINE OF FAVOURITE GULRUH SULTAN The tomb is located in the west of Bursa Muradiye Mosque cemetery area and it belongs to the wife of Bayezit II, the mother of prince Alemşah built in 1502. Mausoleum is square shaped plan and was made of cut stone and a row of three rows of bricks. Over the octagonal drum is covered with a dome as well. Tomb entrance is like the form of a small animal with pointed arches with five rows of scalactic columns. The walls were decorated with engravings after completed but later centuries they were covered with whitewash later unfortunately. The doors and windows of the shrine are original specimen items which reflects the influence of 16th century burial art of Ottomans. The coffins belong to Gulruh Kamer Sultan, Osman Bey the son of prince Alemşah and his daughter Fatma Sultan.
THE SHRINE OF FAVOURITE ŞİRİN HATUN Şirin Hatun was one of the wives of Sultan Bayezit II and the mother of prince Abdullah. The mausoleum has square plan with a single dome. It was made from stone and brick covering the dome over the tomb as situated on a octagonal drum. The shrine is entered through a door with flattened arches and marbel shovel. Its wooden door and window frames maintain the originality of the structure. The interior part is decorated with beautiful engravings of its time but later centuries they were covered with whitewash In the last restoration they were uncovered by the authorities. The marble coffins belong to Şirin Hatun, the prince Abdullah’s daughter Ayinşah and his wife Ferahşah.
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