TURKISH-ISLAMIC ART MUSEUM AND ITS GRAVESTONES OUTSIDE
Turkish-Islamic Art Museum, former name Green madrasah, is located in the centre of Bursa city next to the Green Tomb. It used to be the part of the big Green complex-kulliye- built in 1414-1424 by the architect Hadji Ivaz Pasha. It was first open as Bursa Archeological Museum in 1930 and it went on until 1972 to exhibit archeological items but later it was transformed into as the Bursa Turkish-Islamci Art Museum with etnographic metarials and tombstones. The madrasah was built according to Anatolian Seljuks madrasah style with open courtyard. The madrasah has an entrance antechamber with two side walls and there are thriteen rooms among them used as classrooms. Madrasah courtyard is surrounded by three side porches as the big lecture hall. Today the building is used as a museum. The visitors can find so many valuable ethnographic process in the museums such as bath towels used by ladies , darwish lodge goods used in rituals, Ottoman medallions given to pashas & heroes, kitchen & coffee utensils, the best samples of calligraphic lines made by famous calligraphers Hafız Osman & Sheikh Hamdi, Karagoz & Hacivat shadow theatre items, weapons, armours and beautiful panels to understand the excellent past of Bursa city from 12th century until the early 20th century as ethnographic materials. The museum also has the decorative Nicea tiles which are unique. The vaulted arch above the entrance gate, the dome and the exterior window pediments are decorated with the original Ottoman tiles. There are about 50 endangered Ottoman tombstones from 15th to 19th centuries in the courtyard of Bursa Turkish-Islamic Art Museum today which were collected from different cemeteries & graveyards to be kept in safe here. These tombstones are in different styles reflecting the various periods in 400 years in Bursa and we can understand the development as rise & fall in a political way as well as the economic collapse. The language used in written inscriptions on the tombstone is Arabic and Ottoman-old Turkish-and most of them have different epitaphs. The main forms used on tombstones are divided into four manin categories. Early Ottoman style like Anatolian Seljuk tombstones, Edirnekari-the different form created in Adrinople in 14th century, Classical Ottoman tombstones with headgers on male ones & floral patterns on female ones and the cylindrical tombstones with exaggerated fruits & flowers on. The male group has headgears which show their identity & status in the society and the female groups has floral patterns & jewels reflecting their beauties. The main tombstones which are worth examing and taking pictures are ; Yahya son of Hüseyin dated in 1481 made in Anatoian Seljuk style, Zeyniddün Zekeriya the son judge Sheikh Mevlana Hasan in eraly Ottoman form, Mehmet the son of Abdurrahman dated in 1450 with Arabic calligraphic inscriptions on, Ahmet Chalabi the son of Zeyni lodge master sheikh Safiyuddun in Zeyni tombstone style, master Omer the son of master Ibrahim in Edirnekari style with tulip flower on top, Hatice Hatun the daughter of Ibrahim bey dated in 1502 with floral patterns on, Kalender hasan Dede the member of Kalenderi sect with a cylindiric style containing interesting headgear , the sarcopgahi of Emir Üveys the son of Emir Mohammed dated in 1377 as a monumental grave and a Janissary tombstone with his headgear & the squad badge on telling us he was from 64th division in Janissary army. Anyone who is willing to visit Bursa Turkish-Islamic Art Museum must never forget to stop outside of the museum and examine the unique Ottoman tombstones in the courtyard.