One of the main types of Turkish gravestones , which are made by marble in cylinder shape, is called Ustuvani. The Ustuvani gravestones first used in graveyards as the main items of sarcophagus as the head & feet stones under the influence of westerization began with during the reign of sultan Abdulaziz in 1840. These stones became using seperately as independent ones. After the second half of the 19th century, due affect of westernization and the ease of manifacture, Ustuvani gravestones have been a new trend either decorating sarcophagus for the tombs of high-bureucrats made in marble. Istanbul, as the capital of empire, was leading the main use of ustuvani gravestones so we have thousands of ustuvani stones in Istanbul cemeteries & graveyards today with wonderful calligraphic inscriptions.